Basically, what this article tells me, is that Boeing fitted in a Flight Augmentation Computer (which might not be actually called that, because FAC is an Airbus term) into the 737MAX.
If the Angle of Attack vane breaks or reports data which is inconsistent with the rest of the flight instruments, the FAC may think that the aircraft is pitching up at about 60° and will put a significant nose down input.
Incidents where the FAC puts the aircraft into a sharp nose dive in Airbus aircraft have only happened twice, as far as I know.
The first incident was on a Qantas A330 which did just that, however, once the aircraft got low, it realised that the instruments were giving conflicting data, and the aircraft entered Alternate Law (with the flight envelope protections disabled). The plane landed safely, with passengers having been injured as a result of the sudden pitch down.
Following this incident, Airbus updated all A330 aircraft (as well as the A320 and A340) with new software so that if the AoA vane breaks, the aircraft will enter Alternate Law quicker.
The second incident was on a RAF A330-MMRT, a military version of the A330 which is used by the Royal Air Force for VIP transport, troop transport, a charter airliner for Thomas Cook Airlines, aerial refueler and MEDEVAC. The aircraft did the same thing as the Qantas flight, however, it entered Alternate Law sooner. The captain of the aircraft considered pulling the circuit breaker for the FAC before the aircraft recovered. Upon investigation, it turned out that the software update which was sent out to all civilian airliners was not distributed for military versions of the A330 (as it was Airbus Spain which was responsible for that distribution, not Airbus France).