I too draw the conclusion that both shots are bad.>>3858565>The reality is the vast majority of composition happens well within the frame, rather than in relation to its edges
Yes, and yet, if you follow the right image purely along the edges, it becomes obvious how poorly the left image is framed. The left frame doesn't have one edge at endings and transitions, cuts off the stripes in the sky, and puts the focus on the foreground, the bottom left corner, instead of well inside the frame. Considering the right shot now there's one that's almost framed within the frame.
Yet with the one on the right, I wonder, what is the counterpoint to the phallus boulder? Why does the shot have so much weight to the left, while nothing really matters on the right? Oh yes, the sky only and thus disturbing void in the right.
However, giving the boulder empty space on the right is better than centering it or placing it on the right side of the frame. With the shadow on the left and the light edge on the right, the boulder "looks to the right".
So how would I improve the shot? I'd want another subject in the direction of the boulder's gaze. The sun and the fleecy clouds on the right center could easily make that, still well off the edge of the image in my opinion, not on the edge, and they need to be prominent and send the viewer on a path through the image, the crown of clouds, the phallus, a clue or a vignette bottom right corner. Since the phallus is part of the subject, I'd have a key light on it, too, not on the horizon in the center of the frame. Even a landscape shot has an action, "tells a story". That would be mine to it.